Which Three Subtypes of Oncology Exist

Although oncology comes in a wide variety of subspecialties, only three matter treatments in gynecologic oncology include radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and other similar methods.

Radiation treatment

High-dose radiation therapy is used in oncology to eradicate cancer cells. Practical because it inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells by destroying their DNA. The treatment is hoped to kill cancer cells while sparing healthy ones effectively.

The two primary forms of radiation treatment are brachytherapy and irradiation. Parallel internal and external beams are also available. Both kinds can be utilized to treat malignant growths. The use of an external beam is, however, more common. High-energy x-rays are focused by a machine and applied to the affected area. This is commonly prescribed for a short period (a few weeks).

Proton radiotherapy is a radiation therapy that uses a proton beam to treat patients. This treatment method is superior in its ability to target the tumor precisely. To accurately direct radiation at the tumor, a computer system first analyzes photos of the disease.


Chemotherapy, which belongs to the field of oncology, can alleviate cancer’s unpleasant side effects and even cause tumors to shrink. This treatment method is effective against both locally occurring and distantly spread cancers. This can be used with other therapies to treat or prevent cancer.

Unchecked cell growth is what leads to cancer. When cells are damaged, the body replaces them with healthy ones or allows them to die. Chemotherapy reduces cancer-related symptoms and improves survival rates by eliminating the cancer cells responsible for them.

Chemotherapy can be administered in various methods, including orally, intramuscularly (IM), and intravenously (IV). Drug-by-drug basis decisions must be made on administration routes.

While chemotherapy may cause nausea and vomiting in certain patients, some antiemetics might alleviate these symptoms. There’s a chance that some people will develop flu-like symptoms. Do not hesitate to tell your doctor if you are experiencing any side effects from chemotherapy.

Therapy involving the manipulation of hormones

Hormone treatment is a crucial part of oncology’s arsenal against cancer. To combat the spread of hormone receptor-positive cancer cells, hormone treatment is used. It accomplishes its goal by decreasing the availability of hormones to cancer cells. Further, it can aid in warding off cancer recurrence.

Hormone therapy has shown promise in treating several different kinds of cancer. Cancers of the breast, ovaries, prostate, and uterus are among them.

Other paraneoplastic disorders may also respond to hormone treatment. Radiation treatment, chemotherapy, and surgery are all potential options for treating cancer. Some hormones, however, are not without their negative consequences.

Hormones regulate cellular functions like proliferation, differentiation, and energy metabolism. The testicles, the thyroid, and the ovaries all contribute to their production.

The most common methods of administering hormone treatment include injections and surgical procedures. Typically, this takes place in a medical facility.


Patients with cancer who have spread to their bones are often given bisphosphonates. They help alleviate symptoms of bone disease and the discomfort it causes.

Bisphosphonates not only reduce pain in the bones but also increase patient mobility. Because of their P-C-P linkage, these chemicals are very selective for bone. These chemicals, however, are poorly absorbed by the human body. So, it’s crucial to utilize them from the beginning of the disease.

It is interesting to learn more about the pharmacokinetic characteristics of these substances. Studies have demonstrated that ibandronate is superior to zoledronic acid at preventing bone breakdown (osteolysis).

There have been multiple investigations of bisphosphonates and their potential to lessen skeletal-related events in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Patients who took ibandronate alongside chemotherapy had less bone discomfort and required fewer radiation treatments.

Cancer treatment in women (gynecologic)

Gynecologic oncologists focus on caring for women diagnosed with cancers of the uterus, ovaries, and vagina. Additionally, they conduct surgical procedures to treat cervix and pelvic malignancies. Medical oncology specialists have advanced training and collaborate with other doctors to provide patients with the best possible treatment.

Gynecologic oncologists help women undergoing cancer treatment in more ways than one. Many of them also have expertise in conducting research and are members of relevant professional organizations. When looking for an inherited risk for cancer, a gynecologic oncologist may employ genetic testing and other diagnostic tools.

When a woman has gynecologic cancer, seeing a gynecologic oncologist is in her best interest. In the field of gynecologic oncology, Siteman Cancer Center’s doctors have earned a stellar reputation. They have seven gynecologic oncologists, all of whom hold specialty board certification. Everyone here is dedicated to providing exceptional medical service.